Prof. Graham Machin, National Physics Laboratory (UK)
Professor Graham Machin FREng, BSc (Hons), DPhil (Oxon), DSc, CPhys, CEng, FInstP, FInstMC is the science leader of the NPL Temperature and Humidity Measurement Group and an NPL Fellow. He has more than 30 years’ experience in thermometry research, published more than 220 technical papers and given numerous invited/keynote addresses. He is visiting Professor of Thermometry in Harsh Environments (University of Strathclyde), visiting Professor of Clinical Thermal Imaging (University of South Wales) and Distinguished Visiting Fellow (University of Valladolid, Spain). He represents the UK on the Consultative Committee of Thermometry (CCT) and IMEKO TC12, chairs the CCT working group for Noncontact thermometry and is an international invited expert on the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) “very low temperature thermometry” project (2017-2022). He was President of the UK Institute of Measurement and Control (2018-2019), chair of the Euramet Technical Committee for Thermometry from (2014-2018) and served on the EPSRC Physical Sciences Strategic Advisory Team (2014-2017). GM was awarded the Institute of Measurement and Control (InstMC) Callendar medal in 2012 for “outstanding contributions to the art of temperature measurement”, elected a Honorary Scientist of CAS and also a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2019.
Current research interests are primary thermometry (acoustic, radiometric and especially all aspects of realising the redefined kelvin), radiation thermometry and thermal imaging, new thermocouples, sensor self-validation methods, clinical thermometry (contact, non-contact and internal), reliable temperature (and other) measurements in hostile environments (especially aerospace and nuclear decommissioning). He is project director of the “Realising the redefined kelvin” (Sep 2019) for EURAMET, a founder member of the “Body Temperature Initiative” which aims to improve clinical thermometry throughout the NHS and leads NPL’s non-ionising radiation Metrology activity for Nuclear Decommissioning.
The relevance and importance of quantitative temperature measurementThursday 24th September 2020, 12:00 (Lisbon time) - (Weblink at the conference platform after successeful login)
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Glasgow, one of the founders of the UK’s National Physical Laboratory and one of the greatest Natural Scientists of the 19th Century said “if you cannot measure it, then it is not science” and “can you measure it? Can you express it in figures? Can you make a model if it? If not, your theory is apt to be based more upon imagination than upon knowledge”. Those words are just as relevant today as when he uttered them over 120 years ago. The measurement of reliable truly quantitative temperatures is enduringly difficult. There are a number of reasons for this. Firstly temperature in itself is an intensive quantity not extensive so is quite different from other quantities like mass or length; secondly there is lack of understanding as to the importance of the zeroth law of thermodynamics and the necessity of thermal equilibrium of the sensor with the object being measured; thirdly there is widespread misunderstanding as to how temperature sensors work, be they contact thermometers such as thermocouples or infra-red based devices; and fourthly there is widespread disregard for the necessity of periodic calibration to traceable standards to obviate sensor drift. Without taking these things either explicitly or at least implicitly into account reliable temperature measurement is next to impossible.
Here these four points are discussed; in particular:
• Address the difference between an intensive and extensive quantity and explain why its important in the context of reliable temperature measurement
• Discuss how the zeroth law needs to be taken into account if reliable thermometry is to be performed
• Two common thermometer types will be described and how they operate; namely the thermocouple and the infra-red thermometer, and common sources of uncertainty, which are often neglected, highlighted
• How to attain reliable temperature measurement will be described through the path of periodic calibration attaining traceability to the internationally agreed temperature scale the ITS-90 by an ISO17025 accredited calibration laboratory
The talk will end with a short description of future possible approaches to realising temperature traceability in the measurement setting; especially through the mitigation of the crippling effect of emissivity in IR temperature measurement through its in-situ determination (by an adjunct technique); the mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin and its role in supervising global temperature traceability and the rise of direct in-situ temperature traceability through the development of practical thermodynamic thermometry approaches and self-validating sensors.
Prof. Naoto Kakuta, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan)
Professor Naoto Kakuta is an Associate Professor at Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University. He holds a PhD and a BSc in Environmental Engineering from Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. He has severeal relevant publications on the fields of Heat and mass transfer, Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging and have won several awards.
Near-infrared imaging for heat and mass transfer studies on aqueous solutionsWednesday 23rd September 2020, 09:00 (Lisbon time) - (Weblink at the conference platform after successeful login)
This keynote presents a near-infrared (NIR) imaging method that can be used for heat and mass transfer studies on aqueous solutions. This method is a simple and straightforward method in the transmission mode, based on the spectral characteristics of water absorption bands. Temperature and concentrations of solute molecules/ions can be measured simultaneously, enabling the quantitative investigation of local heat production, mixing processes, and chemical reactions. Imaging results on acid−base reactions in microfluidic channels and free convection from a small heat source are mainly introduced, and future directions are discussed.